HOME     Library     CONTENTS: Journals & Papers of Søren Kierkegaard
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VI A   -   VI B   -   VI C




The distinction between . The confusion in Hegelian philosophy; a fitting observation on this by R. Nielsen in his Propedeutiske Logik.


Aristotle's Rhetoric

The enthymeme is a rhetorical syllogism.

Ch. II

Rhetoric is the capacity, the rhetorical ability, to consider in everything that which is suitable for awakening belief (πιθανóν).

Every other [art] will either instruct or awaken conviction (διδασκαλικη—πιστικη).

πíστις, in the plural, the means whereby conviction is awakened (consequently active).

Three kinds of πíστεις in speaking: (1) that which is constituted by the character of the speaker (), (2) that which puts the hearer in a particular mood, (3) that which lies in the speech itself in that it proves or seems to prove.

Rhetoric becomes an off-shoot of dialectic and of that part of morals which can be called politics.


Rhetoric, ch. III

There are three kinds of hearers, therefore [three kinds of] speakers:

  1. to θεωρòς (the knowledgeable), the artful speech (επιδεικτικòς)
    the present
    praise and censure
          the praiseworthy — the vicious
  2. to deliberative assemblies (ο εκκλησιαστης)
    the future
    persuading — dissuading
    benefit — harm
  3. to the judge
    the past
    accusation — defense
    justice — injustice


  1. The character of the speaker ().
  2. The listeners are brought into a certain state.
  3. The speech proves or seems to prove.
  1. in deliberative conclusions.
  2. before courts.
  3. eulogies.


Addition to previous:

In his Rhetoric
Aristotle does not consider
the "listener" at all.—

Only in Book I, ch. 3,
at the very beginning, is
there a little bit.

See Book III, ch. 1
marked in my copy of
the translation.





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