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II A   -   II C



Copyist Exegesis
The Relation between the Old and the New Testament

After Hierax or Hierakis had nourished himself in Christianity by copying Holy Scripture, he found in his wisdom that the difference between the Old and New Testament is that celibacy is not taught in the former — such a conception is possible only for people who stand in an external relation to the object the way a copyist does.

August 6, 1838


[Exegesis in Danish and Latin of Romans 9-16, based partially on F. A. G. Tholuck, Aulegung des Briefes Pauli an die Röer. Berlin: 1824


[Exegesis in Danish of parallel passages from the Pentateuch, the Prophets, Psalms, and Acts 1-4, 7, 8.]


[Excerpts from Rheinwald, Reportorium, XVII, on the Alexandrians and the Scholastics.]


Lectures on Introduction to Speculative

Winter Semester '37 & '38

Lecture 1

November 15

Lecture 2

December 23


[Notebook on "The History of Philosophy from Kant to Hegel," lectures by H. L. Martensen, University of Copenhagen, first semester 1838-39.]


Speculative Dogmatics



11 o'clock December 6, 1838


December 9, 1838

[Reading notes and excerpts, Johann Adam Møhler, Athanasius der grosse and die Kirche seiner Zeit, besonders im Kampfe mit Arianismus (Mainz: 1827).]


[Reading notes and excerpts, Die christliche Lehre von der Versöhnung in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung von der ältesten Zeit bis auf die neueste. By Dr. Ferd. Chr. Baur (T¨bingen: 1838).]


[Notes on the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, also on the power of the keys (confession, penance, absolution), and Church government, in the early Church, Catholicism, and Protestantism.]


Notes appended to H. H. Clausen's Lectures in Dogmatics:



  1. Man's original perfection.
    Clausen thinks that the ideal condition of the human race has been confused with man's first condition, which is described in Genesis and which ought not to be conceived historically. Thus far he agrees with the recent views which render the first condition as the category of pure being, to which life itself is presumably led back, but which nevertheless must not be thought of as existing [existerende] as pure being; only the system has this.
  2. Man's immortality [...]
  3. Man's sinfulness [...]
    When, in order to explain the significance of Adam's sin for the generations, Clausen appeals, as do other dogmaticians, to the analogy which is found in the individuality of a people; to what extent is this exhaustive, or does he not stop with the category "race and type" instead of reaching the energy of individuality. ]...]
  4. It is important to note, it seems to me, the synthesis which is found in every New Testament dogma, that this synthesis is maintained only from different sides, either as the divine and human (God-man — Revelation), or as succession and unity (present judgment and future, present resurrection and future), or the spiritual and physical (immortality of the soul — resurrection of the body).



    [Texts in Danish from the Prophets, Psalms, and the Book of Tobit.]


    τó ον, the Eleatics (Parmenides), Pure being [Væren] —

    1. it is universally applicable.
    2. most universal. single — immediate.
    3. not a distinction as if it were something objective.
    4. copula without predicate or subject.
      to that extent it is nothing (i.e., nothing is predicated of it).
      τó ετερον (ετερον)

    Existence [Tilværelsen] —
    proceeds out of being —
    being presupposes a second, i.e.,: existence — boundary.

    Every negation implies an affirmation, since otherwise it would itself be completely meaningless — this is what Heiberg calls infinite conclusions.

    An abstract beginning is neither something nor nothing, for, if it were nothing, then it would not have begun, and if it were something, it would be more than a beginning.


    [Excerpt from Johan Eduard Erdmann, Vorlesungen über Glauben und Wissen. (Berlin: 1837). Lectures 1-7 (pp. 1-70).]

    November, 1837


    Lecture 8

    [Pp.70 f.] We have now reached the point that the true is defined as the opposite of the "I" and it must be true just because it is the opposite of the "I". Every other definition of truth is accidental; essentially it is just the opposite of the "I". But that which makes truth the truth is nothing other than the "I itself". And for its content, truth has only that which the "I" gives it. — Now it switches over to the opposite.[*]

    [*] The reason that it is so difficult to get people to perceive this dialectical movement and that they imagine it to be much easier by means of the phenomenal analogies Erdmann uses [pp. 71 f.] is that such a transition seems to involve the incommensurability of life, which is inaccessible to the abstract dialectic developing through the thought-knots of necessity.

    [P. 73] the coinciding of religious superstition with its opposite, the very domination of the "I" over the contents of belief, can also be shown empirically. A hovering enters in here between the greatest superstition, consequently slavish fear, and the greatest arbitrariness and independence (fetishism).

    November 7, 1837


    [Continuation: lecturers 9-15]

    November, 1837


    [Excerpts and reading notes, continuation of II C 38-40:]

    Part Two


    Nov 16
    December 12, 1837
    November 16-December 14, 1837


    On the Relation between Kant and Fichte ...
    [Reading notes on Erdmann, Vorlesungen uber Glauben und Wissen.]

    December 12, 1837


    Zeitschrift für Philosophie und spekulative Theologie, v. Dr. J. H. Fichte ...

    December 18, 1837


    Ueber die Præxistents Christi oder
    die Voraussetzung der menschlichen

    Pfarrer Conradi
    (Bauer's journal, III, 2, pp. 348 ff.)


    Christliche Polemik, Dr. Karl Henrich Sack. Hamburg bei Perthes: 1838.

    According to what I have read in this book so far, there are many very good things in it, but it is more popular than scholarly; frequently it is even devotional, and besides this it is curiously laid out, somewhat like a textbook.

    In the preface there is nothing particularly notable, but the analysis of indifferentism, with which the book itself begins, is interesting in many ways and could be developed with much greater scholarly significance.

    The two main forms of indifferentism are naturalism and mythologizing (depending on whether the indifferentism takes a factual or ideal turn, but the basis of this division is again one of those miserable scholastic bits that are of no importance)....

    Gnosticism ...
    Sack's remark on p. 278 about Gnosticism is superb and agrees entirely with what I have thought and to which there are also allusions in this book in connection with Schaller. ...


    [Reading notes and excerpts, K. Rosenkranz, Encyclopedie der theologischen Wissenschaften (Halle: 1831).]

    November 9, 1838


    [Excerpt from B. Bauer, Die Urgeschichte der Menschheit nach dem biblischen Berichte der Genesis, kritisch untersucht.


    [Reading notes and excerpts, Johannes Voigt, Ueber Pasquille, Spottlieder, und Schmähschriften aus der ersten Halfte des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts.]


    Dichtungen v. Ulrich v. Hutten, didactisch-biographischen und satyrisch-epigrammatischen Inhalts. Zum erstenmal vollständig übersetzt and erla¨tert, herausgegeben v. E. Münch. Stuttgart: 1828. —


    [Reading notes and excerpts, De impostura religionum breve compendium seu liber de tribus impostoribus, Genthe (Leipzipg: 1833).]




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